|关键词||药物观念 技术进步 动态二元结构 内在冲突 社会思潮|
|其他题名||The Evolution of Pharmaceutical Ideas in Modern China：1858-1930|
How to understand the Traditional Chinese Pharmaceuticals(TCP) and Western Pharmaceuticals(WP) and the relationship between them is the core content of medicine ideas in modern China, which not only concerns the constitution of drug concept and influences medication practice in people’s daily life, but also is a matter of concept and development of national drug policy.
WP was at first brought into China by western missionaries and afterwards was bulk imported into by western pharmaceutical companies. At the dle of the 19th century, the western scientific knowledge of modern medicine began to be systematic input. The Chinese feeling to western medicine underwent a successive psychological process of suspicious, contact, trial, comparison and gradually conviction. At the same time, due to the limitations of the development of modern science, the efficacy of the TCP still cannot be completely explained with the western pharmaceutical science, as well as the healing ability accumulated in the long-term treatment practice and the inertia of social customs, TCP never disappear even though was repeatedly hard hit. Therefore, a dual pattern of pharmaceutical idea gradually formed with the coexistence of TCP and WP, and was confirmed by "Chinese pharmacopoeia" in Republic of China.
This article adopts the method of concept analysis, the text analysis, etc., integrated utilizes professional books, newspapers, magazines, drug ads, pharmaceutical factory onicles about medicine and pharmaceutical sciences and public newspapers and magazines, focuses on the ideas of medical circle in modern China with a top-down perspective, systematically combs the differentiation and evolution of appellation of drugs, analyzes the relation between pharmaceutical technology and drug dosage and pharmaceutical ideas, studies the relation between pharmaceutical ideas and social ideological trends.
Study found that no matter what the relation between TCP and WP was presented with “China-Western” synonic relationship and “New-Old” diaonic relationship in the evolution of pharmaceutical concept during modern China, its primary cause lies in the development of modern pharmaceutical science and its fundamental impact on the drugs manufacture and people’s cognition. With the great development of pharmaceutical industry in the late 19th century, the influence broadly permeates into people's daily life through the commercialization and market.
Moreover, not only the transition from traditional unitary structure to dual structure of pharmaceutical ideas in modern China was dynamic, but also the both sides of the conflict separately dynamically developed. An internal conflict exists in the dual structure all the time, which features the coexistence of exogenous and autonomy. Pharmaceutical ideas, meanwhile, in turn deeply influenced people's understanding to WP and reflection on TCP, evenly result in the rising of the social ideological trend and movement of "abolishing medicine theories and reserving traditional pharmaceuticals" and "scientification of Traditional Chinese Medicine" in modern China.
This study further proves that technological advance has a profound influence on social ideas, meanwhile, the spreading of social ideas help the diffusing and public understanding of technologies in turn.
|李彦昌. 中国近代药物观念的变迁：1858-1930[D]. 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部. 北京大学,2015.|
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