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学科主题: 科学技术史
题名:
中国近代药物观念的变迁:1858-1930
作者: 李彦昌
答辩日期: 2015-05-28
导师: 张大庆
专业: 科学技术史
授予单位: 北京大学
授予地点: 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部
学位: 博士
关键词: 药物观念 ; 技术进步 ; 动态二元结构 ; 内在冲突 ; 社会思潮
其他题名: The Evolution of Pharmaceutical Ideas in Modern China:1858-1930
分类号: R-092
摘要:

如何认识中药与西药以及两者之间的关系无疑是近代以来中国药物观念最核心的内容之一。它不仅攸关人们日常药物观念的构成,影响人们的日常用药实践,而且事关国家药物政策理念,影响药物政策的发展走向。

近代以来,西药始由西方传教士带入,继而由西方医药公司大规模输入。进入19世纪中期,西方现代药物科学知识开始系统输入。国人对西药的认识和心理过程经历了疑忌、接触、试用、对比之后,逐渐产生信服的心理。与此同时,由于现代药学发展的局限性,传统药物的有效性仍无法用西方科学知识完全地阐释,加以传统中药在长期治疗实践中所积累的疗治能力以及社会习俗的惯性,传统药物观念虽屡次受到严重冲击,但也并未完全消亡。因此,从近代以来,中国药物观念逐渐形成了中药与西药并存的二元格局,并为《中华药典》所确认。

本文采用概念分析、文本分析等研究方法,综合运用近代出版的药学专业书籍、药学专业报纸与杂志、药物广告、医药厂志、药学资料汇编等专业资料以及大众报刊等辅助资料,以近代医药界观念为主要研究对象,主要采用从上而下的视角,从近代药物称谓的分化与演变、制药技术与药物认知、药物剂型与药物观念、药物观念与社会思潮四个方面,对中国近代药物观念的变迁进行了系统的梳理与分析。

研究发现近代药物观念变迁虽表面上呈现为共时性的“中西关系”或历时性的“新旧关系”,但其根本原因在于现代药物科学的发展对药物制作、药物认知产生了根本性的影响,而且这种影响随着19世纪末医药工业的大发展,通过商业化、市场化更加普遍的渗透到普通民众的日常生活之中。

近代中国的药物观念经历了由以传统中药为核心内容的一元观念结构向中西药物并存的二元观念结构的转变,并且这种二元观念结构一直存在动态的内在冲突,呈现外生性与自主性并存的特征。与此同时,药物观念的转变反过来又深刻影响了人们对西药的认知及对中药的反思,以致出现了“废医存药”与“中药科学化”等近代社会思潮。

本文的研究发现进一步证明了,技术进步对社会观念具有深刻的影响,同时社会观念对技术的进一步传播和公众理解具有重要的反作用。

英文摘要:

How to understand the Traditional Chinese Pharmaceuticals(TCP) and Western Pharmaceuticals(WP) and the relationship between them is the core content of medicine ideas in modern China, which not only concerns the constitution of drug concept and influences medication practice in people’s daily life, but also is a matter of concept and development of national drug policy.

WP was at first brought into China by western missionaries and afterwards was bulk imported into by western pharmaceutical companies. At the dle of the 19th century, the western scientific knowledge of modern medicine began to be systematic input. The Chinese feeling to western medicine underwent a successive psychological process of suspicious, contact, trial, comparison and gradually conviction. At the same time, due to the limitations of the development of modern science, the efficacy of the TCP still cannot be completely explained with the western pharmaceutical science, as well as the healing ability accumulated in the long-term treatment practice and the inertia of social customs, TCP never disappear even though was repeatedly hard hit. Therefore, a dual pattern of pharmaceutical idea gradually formed with the coexistence of TCP and WP, and was confirmed by "Chinese pharmacopoeia" in Republic of China.

This article adopts the method of concept analysis, the text analysis, etc., integrated utilizes professional books, newspapers, magazines, drug ads, pharmaceutical factory onicles about medicine and pharmaceutical sciences and public newspapers and magazines, focuses on the ideas of medical circle in modern China with a top-down perspective, systematically combs the differentiation and evolution of appellation of drugs, analyzes the relation between pharmaceutical technology and drug dosage and pharmaceutical ideas, studies the relation between pharmaceutical ideas and social ideological trends.

Study found that no matter what the relation between TCP and WP was presented with “China-Western” synonic relationship and “New-Old” diaonic relationship in the evolution of pharmaceutical concept during modern China, its primary cause lies in the development of modern pharmaceutical science and its fundamental impact on the drugs manufacture and people’s cognition. With the great development of pharmaceutical industry in the late 19th century, the influence broadly permeates into people's daily life through the commercialization and market.

Moreover, not only the transition from traditional unitary structure to dual structure of pharmaceutical ideas in modern China was dynamic, but also the both sides of the conflict separately dynamically developed. An internal conflict exists in the dual structure all the time, which features the coexistence of exogenous and autonomy. Pharmaceutical ideas, meanwhile, in turn deeply influenced people's understanding to WP and reflection on TCP, evenly result in the rising of the social ideological trend and movement of "abolishing medicine theories and reserving traditional pharmaceuticals" and "scientification of Traditional Chinese Medicine" in modern China.

This study further proves that technological advance has a profound influence on social ideas, meanwhile, the spreading of social ideas help the diffusing and public understanding of technologies in turn.

语种: 中文
相关网址: 查看原文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.bjmu.edu.cn/handle/400002259/125381
Appears in Collections:医学人文研究院/公共教学部_学位论文

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作者单位: 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部

Recommended Citation:
李彦昌. 中国近代药物观念的变迁:1858-1930[D]. 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部. 北京大学. 2015.
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