IR@PKUHSC  > 医学人文研究院/公共教学部
学科主题应用心理学
面孔吸引力认知偏好与动机行为的性别差异研究
陆阳
2016-05-23
导师徐震雷
专业应用心理学
授予单位北京大学
授予地点北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部
学位硕士
关键词面孔吸引力 异性恋 性别 动机 喜爱 渴求
其他题名Gender differences in cognitive preference and motivational behavior of facial attractiveness
分类号R849.1
摘要

目的                          

了解异性恋青年对面孔吸引力的认知偏好与相应的动机行为,探索当人们处理不同性别、不同吸引力水平的面孔时,是否在认知偏好或动机行为中存在着性别差异。

方法

首先,通过招募志愿者及网络搜索,收集男女各200张面孔图片,使用

Photoshop cc对图片进行标准化的处理,招募男女各10名志愿者对这些面孔图片进行筛选后,得到吸引力高的男性面孔、吸引力低的男性面孔、吸引力高的女性面孔和吸引力低的女性面孔各20张,之后招募男性与女性被试各20名完成本研究的实验内容。

所有被试需要完成两项任务:(a)评分任务,被试需要对所呈现的面孔,判断其吸引力的高低并进行评分,软件自动记录被试的判断时间和评分结果;(b)按键任务,被试需要观看不同吸引力水平的面孔图片,并可以通过按键改变观看的时间,软件自动记录被试对每张面孔的观看时间。使用E-Prime 2.0以及SPSS 20.0对实验数据进行描述性统计和方差分析比较,检验在面孔吸引力的认知偏好和动机行为中,是否存在着某种性别差异。

结果

(1) 男性和女性对吸引力高的面孔均比吸引力低的面孔评分显著性高(p<0.05);

(2)女性对吸引力高的同性面孔和对吸引力高的异性面孔评分无显著性差异

(p>0.05),而男性对吸引力高的异性面孔评分显著高于对吸引力高的同性面孔

评分(p<0.05);

(3)男性与女性对吸引力高的异性面孔评分没有显著性差异(p>0.05);

(4)男性和女性对不同吸引力水平、不同性别的面孔,做出评分判断的反应时均不存在显著性的差异(p>0.05);

(5)与评分的结果相似,男性和女性被试均对吸引力高的面孔比吸引力低的面孔平均观看的时间更长,且具有显著差异(p<0.05);

(6)男性平均观看吸引力高的异性面孔的时间显著性的长于其观看吸引力高的同性面孔的时间(p<0.05);而女性平均观看吸引力高的异性面孔与观看吸引力高的同性面孔的时间没有显著性差异(p>0.05);

(7)与评分结果不同的是,男性平均观看吸引力高的异性面孔的时间要显著性长于女性平均观看吸引力高的异性面孔的时间(p<0.05)。

结论

(1)同一面孔引起男女的主观感觉是相似的,即吸引力高的面孔相比吸引力低

的面孔更会引起男女愉悦的感觉,只是吸引力高的异性面孔相比吸引力高的同性面孔会引起男性更多的愉悦的感觉,而吸引力高的异性面孔和同性面孔引起女性的愉悦的感觉相近,所以,在面孔吸引力的认知偏好方面,男性和女性均会被美丽的面孔引起相似的主观愉悦的感觉,不存在明显的性别差异。

(2)在面孔吸引力的动机行为方面,男女均对吸引力低的面孔没有渴求,并均选择缩短观看这些面孔的时间;男性相比女性,或许由于竞争激烈的原因,对美丽的同性面孔没有渴求甚至展现出更少的动机行为;而美丽的异性面孔对男性具有某种动机靶向作用,但对女性没有这种作用,男性比女性会对美丽的异性面孔有着更强烈的渴求以及展现更多的动机行为;即在面孔吸引力的动机行为方面,存在着性别差异。

英文摘要

 

Objective

To investigate the cognitive preference and motivational behavior of facial attractiveness in the heterosexual young people,and explore whether there is a gender difference when processing different gender and attractive faces.

Methods

First of all,via the recruitment of volunteers and network searching,we collect 200 male facial pictures and 200 female facial pictures.Then all pictures are standardlized via Photoshop cc.After 20 recruited male and female subjects screening all the pictures,4 groups are made: attractive male faces, unattractive male faces,attractive female faces and unattractive female faces.Last,20 male and 20 female subjects are administered two tasks.

All subjects need to do two tasks:(a)Rating task,all subjects need to rate the attractiveness of the faces presented on the computer screen,the software will record the reaction time and the score result automaticly;(b)Key-pressing task,the subjects can change the viewing time of the facial images via pressing certain key,the software will record the viewing time automaticlty. Differences were examined by using the statistical methods of t-test analysis of covariance (ANOVA) by using E-prime2.0 and SPSS 20.0.

Result

Both men and women showed significantly higher (p<0.05) scores on the attractive

faces than the unattractive faces;

There is no significant difference between the scores of women on the beautiful

female faces and on the beautiful male faces(p>0.05).But men scored significantly higher on beautiful female faces than on beautiful male faces(p<0.05).

There is no significant difference between men and women on the scores to the

heterosexual faces(p>0.05).

There is no significant difference between men and women on the response time of

rating(p>0.05).

Both men and women view more time on the attractive faces than the unattractive

faces, significantly(p<0.05).

Men spend more time on viewing the beautiful female faces than the beautiful male

faces significantly(p<0.05);but there is no significant difference of the viewing time of women between the beautiful female faces and beautiful male faces(p>0.05).

(7) There is no significant difference between male and female subjects in the ratings of heterosexual facial attractiveness(p>0.05),but male subjects expended more effort(via pressing more keys) than female subjects to extend the viewing time of the beautiful heterosexual faces(p<0.05).

Conclusion

The subjective feeling caused by the same face is similar between the men and

women.That is to say, Attractive faces can cause both men and women more subjective joyfulness than unattractive faces,the difference here is the beautiful female faces can cause more joyfulness than beautiful female faces on men,but not on women.So,in the terms of the cognitive preference of facial attractiveness,beautiful faces can cause similar subjective feelings on both men and women.There is no obviously gender differences in cognitive preference of facial attractiveness.

In the term of the motivational behavior of facial attractiveness,both men and

women show barely desires on the unattractive faces and choose to short the viewing time on them.Opposite to women,men show less desires on the attractive same-gender faces,they even short the viewing time on the beautiful male faces, which maybe due to the fierce competition.However,beautiful heterosexual faces target for men in motivational level,but not for women.Heterosexual men want the beautiful heterosexual faces more,thus having more motivational behaviors to fulfill the desire.That is to say,there exists some gender difference between men and women when processing different gender and attractiveness faces in motivational behavior of facial attractiveness.

语种中文
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文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.bjmu.edu.cn/handle/400002259/125382
专题医学人文研究院/公共教学部
作者单位北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
陆阳. 面孔吸引力认知偏好与动机行为的性别差异研究[D]. 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部. 北京大学,2016.
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