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学科主题: 应用心理学
题名:
社区老年人身体活动与认知老化的关系研究
作者: 王云辉
答辩日期: 2016-05-23
导师: 洪炜
专业: 应用心理学
授予单位: 北京大学
授予地点: 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部
学位: 硕士
关键词: 社区老年人 ; 身体活动 ; 认知老化 ; 职业身体活动 ; 延迟记忆
其他题名: Research on the relationship between physical acticity and cognitive aging of community-dwelling elderly
分类号: B849.1
摘要:

 

目的

本研究旨在以社区老年人为研究对象,考察社区老年人身体活动现状和认知老化的特征,探讨不同种类身体活动与社区老年人多项认知能力老化的关系,以及身体活动和认知功能的影响因素,为延缓社区老年人认知老化提供科学依据。

方法

采用方便抽样选取北京市3个社区136名60岁及以上老年人为调查对象(男性55例,女性81例),将其分为低龄组(60~69岁)和高龄组(70~89岁)。使用日常生活活动能力量表(ADL)、老年人身体活动量表(PASE)以及重复性成套测验神经心理状态测验(RBANS)等一系列认知功能测验,测量社区老年人的日常活动能力、身体活动能力以及认知功能,使用自编一般资料调查表调查老年人的一般情况和身体健康状况。所有资料采用SPSS20.0统计软件进行统计学分析,采用t检验、方差分析、非参检验进行组间比较;使用相关分析、分层回归分析考察身体活动与认知老化的关系;使用多元回归分析探讨身体活动、认知功能的影响因素。

从横向研究中选取36例(男性13例,女性23例)社区老年人进行2年后随访。使用t检验、相关分析进一步考察身体活动与2年后认知老化的关系。

结果

社区老年人身体活动现状和认知老化特征

4项认知能力均低于低龄组(均P<0.05)。

社区老年人身体活动的影响因素分析

P<0.05),高血压对休闲身体活动、身体活动总量有负向预测作用(P<0.05);高龄组中,经济收入对职业身体活动有正向预测作用(P<0.05),糖尿病对休闲身体活动有负向预测作用(P<0.05);其它因素未发现显著性预测作用。

社区老年人不同种类身体活动与多项认知能力老化的关系

相关分析结果显示,不同年龄组,不同种类身体活动与各项认知能力老化的关系不同。低龄组中,职业身体活动量与延迟记忆正相关(r =0.22,P <0.05);高龄组中,职业身体活动量与即时记忆、执行功能正相关(r =0.30~0.37,P <0.05),身体活动总量与即时记忆和延迟记忆正相关(r = 0.33~0.34,P <0.05);其它相关无统计学意义(均P >0.05)。分层回归分析显示,职业身体活动仅对低龄组延迟记忆有正向预测作用(P<0.05),对高龄组认知老化的预测作用消失(P>0.05)。

社区老年人认知功能的影响因素分析

P<0.05)。此外,低龄组中,职业身体活动对延迟记忆具有正向预测作用(P<0.05);高龄组中,年龄对加工速度、即时记忆具有负向预测作用(P<0.05),高血压对加工速度有负向预测作用(P<0.01),脑血管疾病对延迟记忆有负向预测作用(P<0.05)。

社区老年人不同种类身体活动与2年后多项认知能力老化的关系

社区老年人高职业身体活动组2年后即时记忆、延迟记忆均高于低职业身体活动组(均P<0.05);其它分组差异无统计学意义(均P >0.05)。相关分析显示,职业身体活动与社区老年人2年后延迟记忆正相关(P<0.05);其它相关无统计学意义(均P >0.05)。


 

 

结论

社区老年人身体活动量小、类型单一、职业身体活动参与率低身体活动总量以及认知功能随年龄增长而下降。不同年龄组,身体活动与认知功能的影响因素各不不同。低龄社区老年人(70岁之前),职业身体活动与延迟记忆有关,活动越多,延迟记忆可能保持的越好。但进入较高年龄(70岁之后)后,职业身体活动对认知功能无显著效应。提示社区老年人退休后积极参加各种职业身体活动,如照顾他人、参加伴有站或步行的工作以及各种社会活动,可能有益于延缓记忆老化。

英文摘要:

Objective

The purpose of the current study is to investigate the status of physical activities (PA) and the acteristics of cognitive aging (CA) in community-dwelling elderly, explore the relationship between different kinds and amounts of PA and a number of cognitive abilities of community elderly, and find out the influence factors of PA and CA, in order to provide scientific evidence for delaying the cognitive aging of the community-dwelling elderly.

Methods

A total of 136 community-dwelling elderly (aged ≥ 60 years ) including 55 males and 81 females in 3 communities of Beijing were recruited by convenient sampling, and divided into two groups by age which were named the young-aged elderly group (60-69 years old) and the old-aged elderly group (70-89 years old). Activities of daily living was measured by Activities of daily living (ADL), physical activity was measured by Physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE), cognitive function was measured by a series of cognitive funciton test such as Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and some others. All the data were analyzed by Statistic Analysis software (SPSS 20.0). Compared between groups used t test, analysis of variance and nonparametric test, the relationship between PA and CA of community-dwelling elderly was used correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis., and the factors involved in PA and CA was used multiple linear regression.

Two years later, a total of 36 community-dwelling older adults including 13 males and 23 females were recruited from the cross-sectional study accepted follow-up measurements. The relationship between PA and CA two years later of community-dwelling elderly was used t test and correlation analysis.

Results

The highest score of total physical activities (TPA) was 226.71 and the median score (P50) was 100.07. 92.6% of the subjects choose walking as their main leisure physical activity (LPA) and the P50 was 25.70; more than 90.0% of the elderly take part in houshold work (HPA) which P50 was 50.00. As for occupational physical activities (OPA), the participation rate is only 47.4% and 34.1% of the old people devote their time to caring for others. And 96.3% community elderly sit down to watch TV and read newspapers every day, with 20.7% old people spending over 4 hours on such kinds of activities.

Compared to the young-aged elderly group elderly group, the old old-aged elderly group showed insufficiency in TPA, processing speed, immediate memory, delayed memory and utive functions (P<0.05).

Regression analysis demonstrated that the influence factors of PA in different age groups were different. In young-aged elderly group, age was significant negative predictor of OPA (P<0.05) and HBP was significant negative predictor of LPA and TPA (P<0.05). In old-aged elderly group, ecnomic income was significant positive predictor of OPA (P<0.05) and diabetes was significant negative predictor of LPA (P<0.05).

Spearman correlation analysis showed that the relationship between PA and CA were different in different age groups. In young-aged elderly group, OPA was positively correlated with delayed memory (r=0.22, P<0.05). And in old-aged elderly group, OPA was positively correlated with immediate memory and utive function (r=0.30-0.37, P<0.05) and TPA was positively correlated with immediate memory and delayed memory (r=0.33-0.34, P<0.05). Hierarchical regression analysis demontrated that OPA was significant positive predictor of delayed memory (P<0.05). Further analysis showed that the relationship was exsits in the young-aged elderly group only (P<0.05).

Multiple stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that the influence factors of cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly were different in two groups. Specifically, education level was significant positive predictor of delayed memroy, immediate memory and utive functions in old-aged elderly group and processing speed, immediate memory and delayed memory in young-aged elderly group (P<0.05). In addition, in young-aged elderly group, OPA was significant positive predictor of delayed memory (P<0.05); and in old-aged elderly group, age was significant negative predictor of processing speed and delayed memory (P<0.05), HBP was significant negative predictor of prcessing speed (P<0.05) and cerebrovascular disease was significant negative predictor of delayed memory (P<0.05).

The Independent sample t test in longitudinal study showed that there were statistical difference in immediate memory and delayed memory in high levels of OPA elderly group at 2 years later(P<0.05). And correlation analysis showed that OPA was positively correlated with the delayed memory of community-dwelling elderly after 2 years (P<0.05).

Conclusions

Community-dwelling elderly had a small amount and singlle type of PA, low participation rate of OPA. The influence afctors of PA and CF in different age groups are different. Before 70 years old, the more take part in OPA, the more possible that they keep good delayed memory and the relationshop dispear after 70. The studies indicate that take part in OPA actively after retirement such as take care others, join in the work of accompanied by standing or walking and social acitvities may help to delay the aging of the memory in community-dwelling elderly .

语种: 中文
相关网址: 查看原文
内容类型: 学位论文
URI标识: http://ir.bjmu.edu.cn/handle/400002259/125384
Appears in Collections:医学人文研究院/公共教学部_学位论文

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作者单位: 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部

Recommended Citation:
王云辉. 社区老年人身体活动与认知老化的关系研究[D]. 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部. 北京大学. 2016.
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