|关键词||社区老年人 身体活动 认知老化 职业身体活动 延迟记忆|
|其他题名||Research on the relationship between physical acticity and cognitive aging of community-dwelling elderly|
相关分析结果显示，不同年龄组，不同种类身体活动与各项认知能力老化的关系不同。低龄组中，职业身体活动量与延迟记忆正相关（r =0.22，P <0.05）；高龄组中，职业身体活动量与即时记忆、执行功能正相关（r =0.30～0.37，P <0.05），身体活动总量与即时记忆和延迟记忆正相关（r = 0.33～0.34，P <0.05）；其它相关无统计学意义（均P >0.05）。分层回归分析显示，职业身体活动仅对低龄组延迟记忆有正向预测作用（P<0.05），对高龄组认知老化的预测作用消失（P>0.05）。
社区老年人高职业身体活动组2年后即时记忆、延迟记忆均高于低职业身体活动组（均P<0.05）；其它分组差异无统计学意义（均P >0.05）。相关分析显示，职业身体活动与社区老年人2年后延迟记忆正相关（P<0.05）；其它相关无统计学意义（均P >0.05）。
The purpose of the current study is to investigate the status of physical activities (PA) and the acteristics of cognitive aging (CA) in community-dwelling elderly, explore the relationship between different kinds and amounts of PA and a number of cognitive abilities of community elderly, and find out the influence factors of PA and CA, in order to provide scientific evidence for delaying the cognitive aging of the community-dwelling elderly.
A total of 136 community-dwelling elderly (aged ≥ 60 years ) including 55 males and 81 females in 3 communities of Beijing were recruited by convenient sampling, and divided into two groups by age which were named the young-aged elderly group (60-69 years old) and the old-aged elderly group (70-89 years old). Activities of daily living was measured by Activities of daily living (ADL), physical activity was measured by Physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE), cognitive function was measured by a series of cognitive funciton test such as Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and some others. All the data were analyzed by Statistic Analysis software (SPSS 20.0). Compared between groups used t test, analysis of variance and nonparametric test, the relationship between PA and CA of community-dwelling elderly was used correlation analysis and hierarchical regression analysis., and the factors involved in PA and CA was used multiple linear regression.
Two years later, a total of 36 community-dwelling older adults including 13 males and 23 females were recruited from the cross-sectional study accepted follow-up measurements. The relationship between PA and CA two years later of community-dwelling elderly was used t test and correlation analysis.
The highest score of total physical activities (TPA) was 226.71 and the median score (P50) was 100.07. 92.6% of the subjects choose walking as their main leisure physical activity (LPA) and the P50 was 25.70; more than 90.0% of the elderly take part in houshold work (HPA) which P50 was 50.00. As for occupational physical activities (OPA), the participation rate is only 47.4% and 34.1% of the old people devote their time to caring for others. And 96.3% community elderly sit down to watch TV and read newspapers every day, with 20.7% old people spending over 4 hours on such kinds of activities.
Compared to the young-aged elderly group elderly group, the old old-aged elderly group showed insufficiency in TPA, processing speed, immediate memory, delayed memory and utive functions (P<0.05).
Regression analysis demonstrated that the influence factors of PA in different age groups were different. In young-aged elderly group, age was significant negative predictor of OPA (P<0.05) and HBP was significant negative predictor of LPA and TPA (P<0.05). In old-aged elderly group, ecnomic income was significant positive predictor of OPA (P<0.05) and diabetes was significant negative predictor of LPA (P<0.05).
Spearman correlation analysis showed that the relationship between PA and CA were different in different age groups. In young-aged elderly group, OPA was positively correlated with delayed memory (r=0.22, P<0.05). And in old-aged elderly group, OPA was positively correlated with immediate memory and utive function (r=0.30-0.37, P<0.05) and TPA was positively correlated with immediate memory and delayed memory (r=0.33-0.34, P<0.05). Hierarchical regression analysis demontrated that OPA was significant positive predictor of delayed memory (P<0.05). Further analysis showed that the relationship was exsits in the young-aged elderly group only (P<0.05).
Multiple stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that the influence factors of cognitive function in community-dwelling elderly were different in two groups. Specifically, education level was significant positive predictor of delayed memroy, immediate memory and utive functions in old-aged elderly group and processing speed, immediate memory and delayed memory in young-aged elderly group (P<0.05). In addition, in young-aged elderly group, OPA was significant positive predictor of delayed memory (P<0.05); and in old-aged elderly group, age was significant negative predictor of processing speed and delayed memory (P<0.05), HBP was significant negative predictor of prcessing speed (P<0.05) and cerebrovascular disease was significant negative predictor of delayed memory (P<0.05).
The Independent sample t test in longitudinal study showed that there were statistical difference in immediate memory and delayed memory in high levels of OPA elderly group at 2 years later(P<0.05). And correlation analysis showed that OPA was positively correlated with the delayed memory of community-dwelling elderly after 2 years (P<0.05).
Community-dwelling elderly had a small amount and singlle type of PA, low participation rate of OPA. The influence afctors of PA and CF in different age groups are different. Before 70 years old, the more take part in OPA, the more possible that they keep good delayed memory and the relationshop dispear after 70. The studies indicate that take part in OPA actively after retirement such as take care others, join in the work of accompanied by standing or walking and social acitvities may help to delay the aging of the memory in community-dwelling elderly .
|王云辉. 社区老年人身体活动与认知老化的关系研究[D]. 北京大学医学人文研究院/公共教学部. 北京大学,2016.|