目的 探讨显微镜下输精管附睾吻合术的技术及应用价值. 方法梗阻性无精子症患者98例,平均年龄31(20～43)岁,平均梗阻时间4年.术前至少2次精液常规检查未见精子,性激素水平正常,睾丸活检证实睾丸生精功能正常.经阴囊探查发现附睾发育异常22例,输精管梗阻18例,附睾体或尾部梗阻58例.对58例附睾体尾部梗阻患者行显微镜下输精管附睾吻合术.术后3个月复查精液常规,精子密度＞1×104个/ml证实为精道复通,随访至配偶怀孕. 结果58例患者术后失访8例.50例随访3～29个月,其中精液中可见精子36例,精f密度(4×104)～(2×108)个/ml,精子活力2%～70%.4例随访12个月仍无精子,建议辅助生殖.10例无精子者继续随访至少12个月.配偶自然受孕14例.术后总体复通率72%(36例),自然受孕率28%(14例),平均受孕时间为6.6(4.0～10.0)个月. 结论显微镜卜输精管附睾吻合术治疗部分梗阻性无精子患者,可提高复通率.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of microvasoepididymostomy for the treatment of obstructive azoospermia. Methods Ninety-eight patients were confirmed as obstructive azoospermia by infertility investigations.The mean (range) age was 31 (20-43) years.The mean duration of obstruetion was 4 years.All patients were seen by the surgeon for a complete history and physical examination.Semen analyses proved azoopermia,serum levels of sexual hormone were normal and testicular function for production of sperms were normal certified by biopsy.All patients with suspected epididymal or vasal obstruction were offered scrotal exploration.The decision for microvasoepididymostomy was made during surgery,based on the pateney of the vas towards the abdomen documented by saline and sperm fragments containing in the epididymal fluid on intraoperative light-microscopic examination.Microvasoepididymostomy was performed in 58 patients documented epididymal obstruction The initial semen analysis was then done after usually 3 months postoperatively.Patency was arbitrarily defined as＞10 000 sperm/mL in ejaculate in at least one semen analysis after surgery.Postoperative patency rate and postoperative impregnation rate were followed. Results Fifty patients were followed up for 3-29 months,8 cases lost.Sperm was found by semen analysis in 36 patients.Sperm density was 4×104-2×108 sperms/ml and motility was 2%-70%.Semen analysis reveals azoospermia in 6 patients and the patients were counseled to undergo further testing to determine the ultimate outcome of the procedure.Natural conception occurred in 14 patients followed for more than 12 months.The overall pateney rate was 72%(36/50).Among patients with a follow-up of＞6 months,the natural paternity rate was 28%(14/50).The median time to achieve a natural pregnancy was 6.6 (4.0-10.0)months. Conclusion A more favourable patency can be achieved using microsurgical intussusception vasoepididymostomy and a part of patients with obstructive azoospermia can be cured by this means.