|摘要||目的 评价五水头孢唑啉(头孢类抗菌药)及其他常用抗菌药物对近3年临床分离致病菌的体外抗菌活性.方法 琼脂二倍稀释法测定MIC值;活菌计数法绘制杀菌曲线.对来自全国19家医院近3年临床分离的604株致病菌进行了MIC测定.结果 在革兰阳性需氧菌中,五水头孢唑啉对甲氧西林敏感金黄色葡萄球菌(MSSA)、表皮葡萄球菌(MSSE)、青霉素敏感肺炎链球菌(PSSP)以及B溶血组链球菌均有很好的抗菌活性,MIC90≤4 mg·L-1.在革兰阴性菌中,五水头孢唑啉对于不产超广谱β内酰胺酶(ESBLs)的肠杆菌科细菌,仍保持很好的抗菌活性,MIC≤8 mg·L-1.杀菌试验显示,五水头孢唑啉对葡萄球菌表现出典型的时间依赖性,但对大肠埃希菌的杀菌作用随药物浓度升高略有增强.结论 五水头孢唑啉对革兰阳性菌具有较好的抗菌活性,抗菌活性优于头孢氨苄、克拉霉素、克林霉素,略优于头孢替安,与阿莫西林/克拉维酸、头孢呋辛、左氧氟沙星相似;对不产ESBLs的肠杆菌科细菌也保持较好的抗菌活性,优于头孢氨苄,与阿莫西林/克拉维酸和头孢呋辛相似.
Objective To evaluate the in vitro activity of cefazolin penta-hydrate and other common used antimicrobial agents against clinical pathogens isolated within last 3 years. Method MIC values were deter-mined by standard twofold agar dilution method. Time kill curves were il-lustrated by colony form unit (cfu) count method. Totally , MICs of 604 isolates within last 3 years from 19 hospitals were tested. Result The results indicated that for Gram - positive aerobic pathogens, cafazolin pentahydrate showed satisfied in vitro activity against methicillin suscepti-ble Staphylococcus aureus ( MSSA), methicillin susceptibel Staphylococcus epidemidis (MSSE), penicillin susceptible Streptococcus pneumonies (PSSP) and Streptococcus spp. β-hemolytic group. MIC90 was ≤ 4 mg · L-1 For Gram- negative bacilli, cefazolin pentahydrate also showed antibacterial activity. MIC values was ≤ 8 mg · L-1 for non- ESBLs Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. Time- kill curves test results indicated that cefazolin pentahydrate typically is of time dependent profile against staph-ylococci, but for E. coli, the bactericidal activity slight increased with drug concentration increased. Conclution Compared with contrast drugs, the activities of cefazolin pentahydrate against G+ bacteria were better than cephalexin, clindamycin, clarithromycin, and silght better than cefotiam, and similar with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime and levofloxacin. For non - ESBLs Enterobacteriaceae, the activies of cefazolin pentahydrate were better than cephalexin, and similar with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefuroxime.|