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Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys
Degenhardt, Louisa; Chiu, Wai-Tat; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C.; Anthony, James C.; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Gureje, Oye; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Aimee; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean Pierre; Mora, Maria Elena Medina; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, J. Hans; Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Takeshima, Tadashi; Wells, J. Elisabeth
收录类别SCI ; SSCI
WOS标题词Science & Technology
类目[WOS]Medicine, General & Internal
研究领域[WOS]General & Internal Medicine


Alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drug use cause considerable morbidity and mortality, but good cross-national epidemiological data are limited. This paper describes such data from the first 17 countries participating in the World Health Organization′s (WHO′s) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative.

Methods and Findings

Household surveys with a combined sample size of 85,052 were carried out in the Americas (Colombia, Mexico, United States), Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Spain, Ukraine), Middle East and Africa (Israel, Lebanon, Nigeria, South Africa), Asia (Japan, People′s Republic of China), and Oceania (New Zealand). The WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to assess the prevalence and correlates of a wide variety of mental and substance disorders. This paper focuses on lifetime use and age of initiation of tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine. Alcohol had been used by most in the Americas, Europe, Japan, and New Zealand, with smaller proportions in the Middle East, Africa, and China. Cannabis use in the US and New Zealand (both 42%) was far higher than in any other country. The US was also an outlier in cocaine use (16%). Males were more likely than females to have used drugs; and a sex-cohort interaction was observed, whereby not only were younger cohorts more likely to use all drugs, but the male - female gap was closing in more recent cohorts. The period of risk for drug initiation also appears to be lengthening longer into adulthood among more recent cohorts. Associations with sociodemographic variables were consistent across countries, as were the curves of incidence of lifetime use.


Globally, drug use is not distributed evenly and is not simply related to drug policy, since countries with stringent user- level illegal drug policies did not have lower levels of use than countries with liberal ones. Sex differences were consistently documented, but are decreasing in more recent cohorts, who also have higher levels of illegal drug use and extensions in the period of risk for initiation.

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Cited Times:359[WOS]   [WOS Record]     [Related Records in WOS]
作者单位1.Univ New S Wales, Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia
2.Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Hlth Care Policy, Boston, MA 02115 USA
3.Michigan State Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Lansing, MI USA
4.Univ Leipzig, Dept Psychiat, Leipzig, Germany
5.Univ Hosp Gasthuisberg, Dept Neurosci & Psychiat, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium
6.Hlth Care Res Agcy, Bologna, Italy
7.Univ Coll Ibadan Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Ibadan, Nigeria
8.Peking Univ, Inst Mental Hlth, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
9.Inst Dev Res Advocacy & Appl Care, Beirut, Lebanon
10.Ukrainian Psychiat Assoc, Kiev, Ukraine
11.Hosp Fernand Widal, Paris, France
12.St Joan Deu Serveis Salud Mental SSM, Barcelona, Spain
13.Saldarriaga Concha Fdn, Bogota, Colombia
14.Natl Inst Psychiat, Dept Epidemiol, Mexico City, DF, Mexico
15.Hebrew Univ Jerusalem Hadassah Hosp & Med Sch, Braun Sch Publ Hlth & Community Med, Jerusalem, Israel
16.Univ Groningen, Med Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands
17.Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, ZA-7925 Cape Town, South Africa
18.NIMH, Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Tokyo, Japan
19.Christchurch Sch Med & Hlth Sci, Christchurch, New Zealand
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
Degenhardt, Louisa,Chiu, Wai-Tat,Sampson, Nancy,et al. Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys[J]. PLOS MEDICINE,2008,5(7):1053-1067.
APA Degenhardt, Louisa.,Chiu, Wai-Tat.,Sampson, Nancy.,Kessler, Ronald C..,Anthony, James C..,...&Wells, J. Elisabeth.(2008).Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.PLOS MEDICINE,5(7),1053-1067.
MLA Degenhardt, Louisa,et al."Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: Findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys".PLOS MEDICINE 5.7(2008):1053-1067.
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