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学科主题: 基础医学
题名:
Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
作者: Klionsky, Daniel J.1,2,3; Abeliovich, Hagai4; Agostinis, Patrizia5; Agrawal, Devendra K.6; Aliev, Giumrakch7; Askew, David S.8; Baba, Misuzu9; Baehrecke, Eric H.10; Bahr, Ben A.11; Ballabio, Andrea12; Bamber, Bruce A.13; Bassham, Diane C.14,15; Bergamini, Ettore16; Bi, Xiaoning17; Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine18; Blum, Janice S.19; Breclesen, Dale E.20; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.21,188; Brumell, John H.22; Brunk, Ulf T.23; Bursch, Wilfried24; Camougrand, Nadine25; Cebollero, Eduardo26; Cecconi, Francesco27,28; Chen, Yingyu29; Chin, Lih-Shen; Choi, Augustine30; Chu, Charleen T.31,33; Chung, Jongkyeong32,34; Clarke, Peter G. H.35; Clark, Robert S. B.36; Clarke, Steven G.37,38; Clave, Corinne39; Cleveland, John L.42; Codogno, Patrice40,41; Colombo, Maria I.43; Coto-Montes, Ana44; Cregg, James M.45; Cuervo, Ana Maria46; Debnath, Jayanta47; Demarchi, Francesca48,49; Dennis, Patrick B.; Dennis, Phillip A.50; Deretic, Vojo51; Devenish, Rodney J.52,53; Di Sano, Federica54; Dice, J. Fred55; DiFiglia, Marian56; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma57; Distelhorst, Clark W.58,59,60,240; Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan40,41; Dorsey, Frank C.; Droege, Wulf61; Dron, Michel62; Dunn, William A., Jr.63; Duszenko, Michael64; Eissa, N. Tony65; Elazar, Zvulun66; Esclatine, Audrey40,41; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa67; Fesues, Laszlo68,69; Finley, Kim D.70; Fuentes, Jose M.71; Fueyo, Juan72; Fujisaki, Kozo73; Galliot, Brigitte74; Gao, Fen-Biao75,76; Gewirtz, David A.77,78; Gibson, Spencer B.79; Gohla, Antje80; Goldberg, Alfred L.81; Gonzalez, Ramon26; Gonzalez-Estevez, Cristina82; Gorski, Sharon83; Gottlieb, Roberta A.84; Haussinger, Dieter85; He, You-Wen86; Heidenreich, Kim87; Hill, Joseph A.88; Hoyer-Hansen, Maria89,90; Hu, Xun91; Huang, Wei-Pang92; Iwasaki, Akiko93; Jaattela, Marja68,69; Jackson, William T.94; Jiang, Xuejun95; Jin, Shengkan96; Johansen, Terje97; Jung, Jae U.98; Kadowaki, Motoni99; Kang, Chanhee100; Kelekar, Ameeta101; Kessel, David H.102; Kiel, Jan A. K. W.103; Kim, Hong Pyo104; Kimchi, Adi106; Kinsella, Timothy J.105; Kiselyov, Kirill21; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko107; Knecht, Erwin108; Komatsu, Masaaki109; Kominami, Eiki110; Konclo, Seiji; Kovacs, Attila L.111; Kroemer, Guido112,113,114; Kuan, Chia-Yi115; Kumar, Rakesh116; Kundu, Mondira117; Landry, Jacques118; Laporte, Marianne; Le, Weidong119,120; Lei, Huan-Yao121; Lenardo, Michael J.122; Levine, Beth123,124; Lieberman, Andrew125; Lim, Kah-Leong126; Lin, Fu-Cheng127; Liou, Willisa; Liu, Leroy F.96,135; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel128; Lopez-Otin, Carlos129; Lu, Bo130; Macleod, Kay F.131,132; Malorni, Walter; Martinet, Wim133; Matsuoka, Ken134; Mautner, Josef; Meijer, Alfred J.136; Melendez, Alicia137; Michels, Paul138,139; Miotto, Giovanni140; Mistiaen, Wilhelm P.141; Mizushima, Noboru142; Mograbi, Baharia143,144; Monastyrska, Iryna145; Moore, Michael N.146; Moreira, Paula I.147; Moriyasu, Yuji148; Motyl, Tomasz149; Muenz, Christian150; Murphy, Leon O.151; Naqvi, Naweed I.152; Neufeld, Thomas P.; Nishino, Ichizo153; Nixon, Ralph A.154; Noda, Takeshi155; Nuernberg, Bernd156; Ogawa, Michinaga157; Oleinick, Nancy L.158,159,160,161; Olsen, Laura J.162; Ozpolat, Bulent128; Paglin, Shoshana163; Palmer, Glen E.164; Papassideri, Issidora165; Parkes, Miles166; Perlmutter, David H.167,168; Perry, George7; Piacentini, Mauro169; Pinkas-Kramarski, Ronit170; Prescott, Mark171; Proikas-Cezanne, Tassula172; Raben, Nina173; Rami, Abdelhaq174; Reggiori, Fulvio145; Rohrer, Baerbel175; Rubinsztein, David C.176; Ryan, Kevin M.177; Sadoshima, Junichi178; Sakagami, Hiroshi179; Sakai, Yasuyoshi180,181; Sandri, Marco182,183; Sasakawa, Chihiro184; Sass, Miklos185; Schneider, Claudio; Seglen, Per O.187; Seleverstov, Oleksandr186; Settleman, Jeffre; Shacka, John J.189; Shapiro, Irving M.190; Sibirny, Andrei191; Silva-Zacarin, Elaine C. M.192; Simon, Hans-Uwe193; Simone, Cristiano194; Simonsen, Anne195,196; Smith, Mark A.197; Spanel-Borowski, Katharina198; Srinivas, Vickram190; Steeves, Meredith42; Stenmark, Harald196; Stromhaug, Per E.199; Subauste, Carlos S.200,201; Sugimoto, Seiichiro202; Sulzer, David203,204; Suzuki, Toshihiko205; Swanson, Michele S.206; Takeshita, Fumihiko208; Talbot, Nicholas. J.209; Talloczy, Zsolt203,204; Tanaka, Keiji109; Tanaka, Kozo210; Tanida, Isei211; Taylor, Graham S.212; Taylor, J. Paul213; Terman, Alexei214; Tettamanti, Gianluca215; Thompson, Craig B.116; Thumm, Michael216; Tolkovsky, Aviva M.217; Tooze, Sharon A.218; Truant, Ray219; Tumanovska, Lesya V.220; Uchiyama, Yasuo221; Ueno, Takashi110; Uzcategui, Nestor L.222; van der Klei, Ida103; Vaquero, Eva C.223; Vellai, Tibor224; Vogel, Michael W.225; Wang, Hong-Gang226; Webster, Paul227; Wiley, John W.228; Xi, Zhijun229; Xiao, Gutian230; Yahalom, Joachim; Yang, Jin-Ming231; Yap, George232; Yin, Xiao-Min233; Yoshimori, Tamotsu155; Yu, Li122; Yue, Zhenyu234; Yuzaki, Michisuke235; Zabirnyk, Olga236,237; Zheng, Xiaoxiang238; Zhu, Xiongwei197; Deter, Russell L.239; Tabas, Ira207
关键词: autolysosome ; autophagosome ; flux ; lysosome ; phagophore ; stress ; vacuole
刊名: AUTOPHAGY
发表日期: 2008-02-16
卷: 4, 期:2, 页:151-175
收录类别: SCI
文章类型: Review
WOS标题词: Science & Technology
类目[WOS]: Cell Biology
研究领域[WOS]: Cell Biology
关键词[WOS]: GLUCAGON-INDUCED AUTOPHAGY ; MURINE PANCREATIC ACINAR ; ISOLATED RAT HEPATOCYTES ; SEMINAL-VESICLE CELLS ; DROSOPHILA FAT-BODY ; BETAINE HOMOCYSTEINE METHYLTRANSFERASE ; VINBLASTINE-INDUCED AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS ; ELECTRON MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION ; CHAPERONE-MEDIATED AUTOPHAGY ; STARVATION-INDUCED AUTOPHAGY
英文摘要:

Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.(2,3) There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.

语种: 英语
WOS记录号: WOS:000253008800003
Citation statistics:
内容类型: 期刊论文
版本: 出版稿
URI标识: http://ir.bjmu.edu.cn/handle/400002259/62473
Appears in Collections:基础医学院_北京大学人类疾病基因研究中心_期刊论文

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作者单位: 1.Bucks Inst Age Res, Novato, CA USA
2.Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Cell Biol, Boston, MA USA
3.Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Div Life Sci, Saitama, Japan
4.Univ Oslo, Dept Mol Biosci, N-0027 Oslo, Norway
5.Univ Oviedo, Dept Morfol & Biol Celular, E-33006 Oviedo, Spain
6.British Columbia Canc Agcy, Genome Sci Ctr, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4E6, Canada
7.Agr Univ Warsaw, Dept Physiol Sci, Warsaw, Poland
8.Univ Wyoming, Dept Anim Sci, Laramie, WY 82071 USA
9.Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Canc, Charlestown, MA USA
10.Natl Acad Sci Ukraine, Inst Cell Biol, Lvov, Ukraine
11.Univ Fed Sao Carlos, Sorocaba, Brazil
12.Univ Bern, Dept Pharmacol, Bern, Switzerland
13.Keck Grad Inst Appl Sci, Claremont, CA USA
14.Lab Nazl Consorzio Interuniv Biotecnol, Trieste, Italy
15.Univ Cincinnati, Dept Genome Sci, Cincinnati, OH USA
16.Novartis Inst Biomed Res, Cambridge, MA USA
17.NYU, Sch Med, Nathan Kline Inst, Orangeburg, NY USA
18.Univ Tokyo, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Tokyo, Japan
19.Tufts Univ, Dept Physiol, Boston, MA 02111 USA
20.Ctr Invest Principe Felipe, Dept Cell Biol, Valencia, Spain
21.Chaim Sheba Med Ctr, Dept Oncol, Ramat Gan, Israel
22.McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada
23.Cent Univ Venezuela, Escuela Bioanal, Caracas, Venezuela
24.Eotvos Lorand Univ, Dept Genet, Budapest, Hungary
25.Maryland Psychiat Res Ctr, Baltimore, MD 21228 USA
26.Dept Cell Biol & Biophys, Athens, Greece
27.Childrens Hosp Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 USA
28.Catholic Univ Louvain, Dept Mol Cell Biol, B-3000 Louvain, Belgium
29.Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Neurol, Charlestown, MA USA
30.Yale Univ, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, New Haven, CT USA
31.Univ Hosp Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
32.Immunotec Res Ltd, Quebec City, PQ, Canada
33.Juntendo Univ, Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Tokyo 113, Japan
34.Univ Paris 11, F-94805 Villejuif, France
35.Creighton Univ, Sch Med, Dept Biomed Sci, Omaha, NE 68178 USA
36.INRA, UR892, Jouy En Josas, France
37.Univ Laval, Canc Res Ctr, Quebec City, PQ, Canada
38.Tel Aviv Univ, Dept Neurobiochem, IL-69978 Tel Aviv, Israel
39.Peking Univ, Hosp 1, Dept Urol, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
40.Eastern Michigan Univ, Dept Biol, Ypsilanti, MI 48197 USA
41.Univ Tokyo, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Tokyo, Japan
42.Keio Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurophysiol, Tokyo, Japan
43.Natl Inst Hlth, Frederick, MD USA
44.Zhejiang Univ, Dept Biomed Engn, Zhejiang, Peoples R China
45.Western Univ Hlth Sci, Pomona, CA USA
46.Manitoba Inst Cell Biol, Winnipeg, MB R3E 0V9, Canada
47.Ctr Neurosci & Cell Biol, Inst Physiol, Coimbra, Portugal
48.Univ Toledo, Dept Biol Sci, Toledo, OH 43606 USA
49.Iowa State Univ, Dept Genet, Ames, IA USA
50.Iowa State Univ, Inst Plant Sci, Ames, IA USA
51.Univ Pisa, Ctr Res Biol & Pathol Aging, Pisa, Italy
52.Japan Womens Univ, Dept Chem & Biol Sci, Tokyo 112, Japan
53.Univ Connecticut, Dept Pharmaceut Sci, Storrs, CT USA
54.Telethon Inst Genet & Med, Naples, Italy
55.JST, CREST, Kyoto, Japan
56.Univ Padua, Dept Biomed Sci, Padua, Italy
57.Venetan Inst Mol Med, Dulbecco Telethon Inst, Padua, Italy
58.Univ Michigan, Inst Life Sci, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
59.Univ Michigan, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
60.Univ Michigan, Dept Biol Chem, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
61.Hebrew Univ Jerusalem, Dept Biochem & Food Sci, Rehovot, Israel
62.Univ Texas San Antonio, Coll Sci, Dept Biol, San Antonio, TX USA
63.Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Dept Pathol & Lab Med, Cincinnati, OH 45267 USA
64.Univ Massachusetts, Sch Med, Dept Canc Biol, Worcester, MA USA
65.UM2, CNRS UM1, Ctr Agents Pathogenes & Biotechnol Sante, Inst Biol, Montpellier, France
66.Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA
67.Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Biol Sci, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA
68.Salk Inst Biol Studies, Cellular Neurobiol Lab, San Diego, CA USA
69.Kagoshima Univ, Dept Frontier Vet Med, Kagoshima 890, Japan
70.Univ Geneva, Dept Zool & Anim Biol, Geneva, Switzerland
71.Hosp Sick Children, Cell Biol Program, Toronto, ON M5G 1X8, Canada
72.Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Div Pharmacol, Linkoping, Sweden
73.Med Univ Vienna, Inst Canc Res, Div Oncol, Dept Med 1, Vienna, Austria
74.Univ Bordeaux 2, CNRS, UMR5095, F-33076 Bordeaux, France
75.CSIC, Inst Fermentac Ind, Dept Microbiol, E-28006 Madrid, Spain
76.Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dept Biol, I-00173 Rome, Italy
77.Univ Roma Tor Vergata, IRCCS Santa Lucia Fdn, Dulbecco Telethon Inst, Rome, Italy
78.Peking Univ, Ctr Human Dis Genom, Dept Immunol, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
79.Emory Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA
80.Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Pulm & Crit Care Med, Boston, MA USA
81.Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Pathol, Pittsburgh, PA USA
82.Univ Pittsburgh, Ctr Neurosci, Pittsburgh, PA USA
83.Korea Adv Inst Sci & Technol, Dept Biol Sci, Natl Creat Res Initiat Ctr Cell Growth Regulat, Taejon, South Korea
84.Univ Lausanne, Dept Biol Cellulaire & Morphol, Lausanne, Switzerland
85.Safar Ctr Resuscitat Res, Pittsburgh, PA USA
86.Univ Paris 11, Chatenay Malabry, France
87.INSERM, U756, Chatenay Malabry, France
88.Univ Calif Los Angeles, Dept Chem & Biochem, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA
89.Univ Calif Los Angeles, Inst Mol Biol, Los Angeles, CA 90024 USA
90.Univ Bordeaux 2, Inst Biochim & Genet Cellulaires, Lab Genet Mol Champignons, F-33076 Bordeaux, France
91.Scripps Res Inst, Dept Canc Biol, Jupiter, FL USA
92.Univ Nacl Cuyo, CONICET, Lab Biol Celular & Mol, Inst Histol & Embryol, RA-5500 Mendoza, Argentina
93.Albert Einstein Coll Med, Marion Bessin Liver Res Ctr, Dept Anat & Struct Biol & Dev & Mol Biol, Bronx, NY 10467 USA
94.Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Pathol, San Francisco, CA USA
95.USN Med Oncol, NCI, Med Oncol Branch, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA
96.Univ New Mexico, Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Mol Genet & Microbiol, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA
97.Monash Univ, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia
98.Monash Univ, ARC Ctr Excellence Struct & Funct Microbial Genom, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia
99.Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Biol, I-00173 Rome, Italy
100.Case Western Reserve Univ, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Dept Med, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
101.Univ Tubingen, Dept Biochem, Tubingen, Germany
102.Baylor Univ, Coll Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA
103.Univ Helsinki, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Helsinki, Finland
104.Case Western Reserve Univ, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Dept Pharmacol, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
105.Univ Florida, Coll Med, Dept Anat & Cell Biol, Gainesville, FL USA
106.Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Biol Chem, IL-76100 Rehovot, Israel
107.Univ Debrecen, Res Ctr Mol Med, Hungarian Acad Sci, Apoptosis & Genom Res Grp,Dept Biochem, Debrecen, Hungary
108.Univ Debrecen, Res Ctr Mol Med, Hungarian Acad Sci, Apoptosis & Genom Res Grp,Dept Mol Biol, Debrecen, Hungary
109.Univ Extremadura, EU Enfermeria, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol & Genet, CIBERNED, Caceres, Spain
110.Univ Texas Houston, MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Neurooncol, Houston, TX 77030 USA
111.Univ Calif San Francisco, Gladstone Inst Neurol Dis, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA
112.Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Neurol, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA
113.Virginia Commonwealth Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Richmond, VA USA
114.Virginia Commonwealth Univ, Massey Canc Ctr, Richmond, VA USA
115.Univ Dusseldorf, Inst Biochem & Mol Biol, Dusseldorf, Germany
116.Univ Nottingham, Queens Med Ctr, Inst Genet, Dept Dev Genet & Gene Control, Nottingham NG7 2RD, England
117.San Diego State Univ, BioSci Ctr, San Diego, CA 92182 USA
118.Univ Dusseldorf, Dept Internal Med, Dusseldorf, Germany
119.Duke Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Immunol, Durham, NC USA
120.Univ Colorado, Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Pharmacol, Aurora, CO USA
121.Univ Texas SW Med Ctr Dallas, Div Cardiol, Dallas, TX 75390 USA
122.Danish Canc Soc, Inst Canc Biol, Apoptosis Dept, Copenhagen, Denmark
123.Danish Canc Soc, Inst Canc Biol, Ctr Genotox Stress Res, Copenhagen, Denmark
124.Zhejiang Univ, Sch Med, Affiliated Hosp 2, Inst Canc, Hangzhou 310027, Zhejiang, Peoples R China
125.Natl Taiwan Univ, Dept Life Sci, Taipei 10764, Taiwan
126.Yale Univ, Sch Med, Dept Immunobiol, New Haven, CT USA
127.Med Coll Wisconsin, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Milwaukee, WI 53226 USA
128.Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Radiat Oncol, New York, NY 10021 USA
129.Univ Med & Dent New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Med Sch, Dept Pharmacol, Piscataway, NJ 08854 USA
130.Univ Tromso, Inst Med Biol, Dept Biochem, Tromso, Norway
131.Univ So Calif, Keck Med Sch, Dept Mol Microbiol & Immunol, Los Angeles, CA USA
132.Niigata Univ, Dept Appl Biol Chem, Niigata, Japan
133.Univ Hosp Cleveland, Dept Radiat Oncol, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
134.Univ Tokyo, Dept Biotechnol, Tokyo, Japan
135.Univ Texas SW Med Ctr Dallas, Dept Mol Biol, Dallas, TX 75390 USA
136.Univ Minnesota, Ctr Canc, Dept Lab Med & Pathol, Minneapolis, MN USA
137.Wayne State Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med & Pharmacol, Detroit, MI USA
138.Univ Groningen, Groningen Biomol Sci Biotechnol Inst GBB, Haren, Netherlands
139.Univ Pittsburgh, Med Ctr, Div Pulm Allergy & Crit Care Med, Pittsburgh, PA USA
140.Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Mol Genet, IL-76100 Rehovot, Israel
141.Tokyo Metropolitan Inst Med Sci, Lab Frontier Sci, Tokyo 113, Japan
142.Univ Texas MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Neurosurg, Houston, TX USA
143.Eotvos Lorand Univ, Dept Anat Cell & Dev Biol, Budapest, Hungary
144.Inst Gustave Roussy, INSERM, U848, F-94805 Villejuif, France
145.Cincinnati Childrens Hosp Res Fdn, Div Dev Biol, Cincinnati, OH USA
146.Univ Penn, Sch Med, Abramson Family Canc Res Inst, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
147.Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Inst Hlth Sci, Shanghai, Peoples R China
148.Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Shanghai, Peoples R China
149.INSERM, ERI 21, Nice, France
150.IFR 50, Lab Pathol Clin & Expt, Nice, France
151.Univ Utrecht, Med Ctr, Dept Cell Biol, Utrecht, Netherlands
152.Natl Cheng Kung Univ, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Tainan 70101, Taiwan
153.NIAID, Natl Inst Hlth, Immunol Lab, Mol Dev Sect, Bethesda, MD USA
154.Univ Texas SW Med Ctr Dallas, Dept Internal Med, Dallas, TX 75390 USA
155.Univ Texas SW Med Ctr Dallas, Dept Microbiol, Dallas, TX 75390 USA
156.Univ Michigan, Sch Med, Dept Pathol, Ann Arbor, MI USA
157.Natl Inst Neurosci, Neurodegenerat Res Lab, Singapore, Singapore
158.Zhejiang Univ, Inst Biotechnol, Hangzhou 310027, Peoples R China
159.Univ Texas MD Anderson Canc Ctr, Dept Expt Therapeut, Houston, TX USA
160.Univ Oviedo, Inst Univ Oncol, Dept Bioquim & Biol Mol, Oviedo, Spain
161.Vanderbilt Univ, Dept Radiat Oncol, Nashville, TN USA
162.Univ Chicago, Gordon Ctr Integrat Sci, Ben May Dept Canc Res, Chicago, IL 60637 USA
163.Ist Super Sanita, I-00161 Rome, Italy
164.Univ Antwerp, Dept Pharmacol, Antwerp, Belgium
165.Kyushu Univ, Fac Agr, Fukuoka 812, Japan
166.Natl Res Ctr Environm & Hlth, GSF, Munich, Germany
167.Univ Amsterdam, Acad Med Ctr, Dept Med Biochem, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands
168.Catholic Univ Louvain, Biochem Lab, Brussels, Belgium
169.Univ Padua, Dept Biol Chem, Padua, Italy
170.Univ Coll Antwerp, Dept Healthcare Sci, Antwerp, Belgium
171.CUNY, Queens Coll, Dept Biol, Flushing, NY USA
172.Catholic Univ Louvain, Duve Inst, Trop Dis Res Unit, Brussels, Belgium
173.Tokyo Med & Dent Univ, Dept Physiol & Cell Biol, Tokyo, Japan
174.Plymouth Marine Lab, Plymouth, Devon, England
175.Rockefeller Univ, Lab Viral Immunobiol, New York, NY 10021 USA
176.Natl Univ Singapore, Temasek Life Sci Lab, Fungal Pathobiol Grp, Singapore 117548, Singapore
177.Natl Ctr Neurol & Psychiat, Natl Inst Neurosci, Dept Neuromuscular Res, Kodaira, Tokyo 187, Japan
178.Osaka Univ, Res Inst Microbial Dis, Dept Cellular Regulat, Osaka, Japan
179.Univ Dusseldorf, Inst Biochem & Mol Biol 2, Dusseldorf, Germany
180.Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Radiat Oncol, Cleveland, OH USA
181.Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Biochem, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
182.Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Environm Hlth Sci, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
183.Case Western Reserve Univ, Case Comprehens Canc Ctr, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
184.Univ Michigan, Dept Mol Cellular & Dev Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
185.Univ Tubingen, Dept Mol Biol, Tubingen, Germany
186.Clin JWG Univ, Inst Cellular & Mol Anat, Frankfurt, Germany
187.Cambridge Inst Med Res, Dept Med Genet, Cambridge, England
188.Kyoto Univ, Div Appl Life Sci, Kyoto, Japan
189.Louisiana State Univ, Hlth Sci Ctr, Sch Dent, Dept Oral & Craniofacial Biol, New Orleans, LA USA
190.Univ Cambridge, Addenbrookes Hosp, Inflammatory Bowel Dis Res Grp, Cambridge CB2 2QQ, England
191.Univ Pittsburgh, Sch Med, Dept Pediat, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 USA
192.Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Biol, I-00173 Rome, Italy
193.Monash Univ, Dept Biochem & Mol Biol, Melbourne, Vic 3004, Australia
194.NIAMSD, Natl Inst Hlth, Arthritis & Rheumatism Branch, Bethesda, MD USA
195.Med Univ S Carolina, Ophthalmol & Neurosci Div, Charleston, SC 29425 USA
196.Beatson Inst Canc Res, Tumor Cell Death Lab, Glasgow G61 1BD, Lanark, Scotland
197.Univ Med & Dent New Jersey, Sch Med, Cardiovasc Res Inst, Dept Cell Biol & Mol Med, Newark, NJ 07103 USA
198.Meikai Univ, Sch Dent, Dept Diagnost & Therapeut Sci, Sakado, Saitama 35002, Japan
199.Univ Oslo, Rikshosp, Radiumhosp HF, Inst Canc Res,Dept Cell Biol, N-0027 Oslo, Norway
200.Univ Alabama Birmingham, Dept Pathol, Birmingham, AL 35294 USA
201.Thomas Jefferson Univ, Dept Orthopaed Surg, Philadelphia, PA 19107 USA
202.Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, Dept Translat Pharmacol, I-66030 Santa Maria Imbaro, Italy
203.Univ Oslo, Ctr Canc Biomed, Oslo, Norway
204.Norwegian Radium Hosp, Dept Biochem, Oslo, Norway
205.Case Western Reserve Univ, Dept Pathol, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
206.Univ Leipzig, Inst Anat, Leipzig, Germany
207.Univ Missouri, Div Biol, Columbia, MO USA
208.Case Western Reserve Univ, Sch Med, Inst Pathol, Dept Ophthalmol, Cleveland, OH USA
209.Case Western Reserve Univ, Sch Med, Inst Pathol, Dept Med, Cleveland, OH USA
210.Natl Hosp Org, Miyazaki Higashi Hosp, Dept Neurol, Miyazaki, Japan
211.Columbia Univ, Dept Neurol, New York, NY USA
212.Columbia Univ, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY USA
213.Univ Ryukyus, Dept Microbiol, Okinawa, Japan
214.Univ Michigan, Dept Microbiol & Immunol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA
215.Columbia Univ, Dept Med, New York, NY USA
216.Yokohama City Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Mol Biodef Res, Yokohama, Kanagawa 232, Japan
217.Univ Exeter, Sch Biosci, Exeter, Devon, England
218.Univ Penn, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA
219.Univ Insubria, Dept Struct & Funct Biol, Varese, Italy
220.Univ Cambridge, Dept Biochem, Cambridge CB2 1QW, England
221.Canc Res UK London Res Inst, Secretory Pathways Lab, London, England
222.Tohoku Univ, Ctr Res Strategy & Support, Inst Dev Aging & Canc, Sendai, Miyagi 980, Japan
223.Natl Inst Infect Dis, Dept Biochem & Cell Biol, Tokyo, Japan
224.Univ Birmingham, CRUK Inst Canc Studies, Birmingham, W Midlands, England
225.Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Div Geriatr Med, Linkoping, Sweden
226.Univ Gottingen, Zentrum Biochem & Mol Zellbiol, Gottingen, Germany
227.AA Bogomolets Physiol Inst, Dept Gen & Mol Pathophysiol, UA-252601 Kiev, Ukraine
228.Osaka Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Cell Biol & Neurosci, Osaka, Japan
229.Hosp Clin Barcelona, Div Gastroenterol, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain
230.H Lee Moffitt Canc Ctr & Res Inst, Tampa, FL USA
231.House Ear Res Inst, Ahmanson Ctr Adv Elect Microscopy & Imaging, Los Angeles, CA USA
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Recommended Citation:
Klionsky, Daniel J.,Abeliovich, Hagai,Agostinis, Patrizia,et al. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes[J]. AUTOPHAGY,2008,4(2):151-175.
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