|The Sino-American Belt Study: Nickel and Cobalt Exposure, Epidemiology, and Clinical Considerations|
|Hamann, Dathan1; Hamann, Carsten2; Li, Lin-Feng3; Xiang, Hailian3; Hamann, Kylin4; Maibach, Howard5; Taylor, James S.6; Thyssen, Jacob P.7|
|WOS标题词||Science & Technology|
|关键词[WOS]||ALLERGIC CONTACT-DERMATITIS ; DIMETHYLGLYOXIME TEST ; INEXPENSIVE JEWELRY ; UNITED-STATES ; RELEASE ; PREVALENCE ; ALLOYS ; INTERVENTION ; MULTICENTER ; POPULATION|
Background: Nickel and cobalt are common causes of metal allergy.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate nickel and cobalt exposure in belt buckles by testing 701 belts purchased in China and the United States and to consider the prevalence of nickel allergy and its relevance among Chinese patients.
Methods: Seven hundred one belt buckles purchased in China and the United States were tested for nickel and cobalt release. Six hundred thirty-one Chinese patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested and interviewed to determine clinical relevance of results. The Chinese and American literature was reviewed to investigate trends in nickel prevalence over the past decades.
Results: Sixty percent (n = 219) of belts purchased in China (n = 365) released nickel, and 0.5% (n = 2) released cobalt; 55.7% (n = 187) in the United States (n = 336) released nickel, and 0.9% (n = 3) released cobalt Belt dermatitis was a significant clinical finding in 34.8% of Chinese nickel-allergic patients. Literature review suggests increasing nickel allergy prevalence in the United States and China.
Conclusions: Metallic belt buckles are an important source of nickel exposure to consumers. Belts from lowest socioeconomic vendors were more likely to release nickel. Belts with silver color and dark metallic color were more likely to release nickel and cobalt, respectively. Clinical findings show belt dermatitis in China to be a problem.
|资助机构||SmartPractice, Phoenix, AZ ; SmartPractice|
|作者单位||1.Univ Arizona, Coll Med Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ 85004 USA|
2.Loma Linda Univ, Sch Med, Loma Linda, CA USA
3.Peking Univ, Hosp 3, Dept Dermatol, Beijing 100871, Peoples R China
4.Calvin Coll, Grand Rapids, MI 49506 USA
5.UCSF Sch Med, San Francisco, CA USA
6.Cleveland Clin, Dept Dermatol, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA
7.Univ Copenhagen, Gentofte Hosp, Dept Dermatoallergol, Hellerup, Denmark
|Hamann, Dathan,Hamann, Carsten,Li, Lin-Feng,et al. The Sino-American Belt Study: Nickel and Cobalt Exposure, Epidemiology, and Clinical Considerations[J]. DERMATITIS,2012,23(3):117-123.|
|APA||Hamann, Dathan.,Hamann, Carsten.,Li, Lin-Feng.,Xiang, Hailian.,Hamann, Kylin.,...&Thyssen, Jacob P..(2012).The Sino-American Belt Study: Nickel and Cobalt Exposure, Epidemiology, and Clinical Considerations.DERMATITIS,23(3),117-123.|
|MLA||Hamann, Dathan,et al."The Sino-American Belt Study: Nickel and Cobalt Exposure, Epidemiology, and Clinical Considerations".DERMATITIS 23.3(2012):117-123.|