|Cinnabar is not converted into methylmercury by human intestinal bacteria|
|Zhou, Xinrui2; Wang, Liming3; Sun, Xinming1; Yang, Xiuwei2; Chen, Chunying3; Wang, Qi1; Yang, Xiaoda2|
|关键词||Cinnabar Intestinal bacteria Biotransformation|
|刊名||JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY|
|WOS标题词||Science & Technology|
|类目[WOS]||Plant Sciences ; Chemistry, Medicinal ; Integrative & Complementary Medicine ; Pharmacology & Pharmacy|
|研究领域[WOS]||Plant Sciences ; Pharmacology & Pharmacy ; Integrative & Complementary Medicine|
|关键词[WOS]||X-RAY-ABSORPTION ; DESULFOVIBRIO-DESULFURICANS LS ; MERCURY METHYLATION ; IN-VIVO ; TRADITIONAL MEDICINES ; INORGANIC MERCURY ; SULFUR ; SPECTROSCOPY ; SPECTROMETRY ; BLOOD|
Ethnopharmacological relevance: Cinnabar (Cin), a naturally occurring mercuric sulfide (HgS), is a mineral widely used in traditional Chinese medicine throughout history. As for the toxicity of cinnabar, one important assumption is that cinnabar may be transformed into highly toxic methylmercury by gastrointestinal flora. There is no evidence in humans to support this assumption.
Aim of the study: To investigate the biotransformation of cinnabar (HgS) in the human intestinal bacteria with modern analytical techniques.
Materials and methods: A gas chromatograph, equipped with electron capture detection (GC-ECD) and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were used to detect the formation of methylmercury after incubation of cinnabar with human intestinal bacteria. The content of soluble mercury in the bacteria media was determined by cold vapor-atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS). In addition, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) was used to confirm the possible transformation of cinnabar in the bacteria media, and under mimetic intestinal condition by measuring the species of sulfur and mercury in the reaction extraction of cinnabar and Na(2)S mixture.
Results: No methylmercury was detected by both GC-ECD and GC-MS, which suggest that cinnabar (HgS) is not methylated in the human intestine. A small amount of soluble mercury was found to be released in the flora medium of HgS or cinnabar by CV-AAS. The XANES analyses revealed that polysulfides exist in the flora medium, and the simulated results showed that the products by incubating cinnabar with Na(2)S were mercuric polysulfides.
Conclusion: These results showed that under gut flora conditions cinnabar would be transformed into mercuric polysulfides rather than methylmercury. Our work provides evidences of nontoxic transformation of cinnabar in the human intestinal bacteria. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
|项目编号||30672653 ; 20931160430 ; 2001BA701A57|
|资助机构||National Natural Science Foundation of China ; Tenth Five-Year Plan of Science and Technology of China|
|作者单位||1.Peking Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Toxicol, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China|
2.Peking Univ, Sch Pharmaceut Sci, State Key Labs Nat & Biomimet Drugs, Beijing 100191, Peoples R China
3.Natl Ctr Nanosci & Technol China, CAS Key Lab Biol Effects Nanomat & Nanosafety, Beijing 100190, Peoples R China
|Zhou, Xinrui,Wang, Liming,Sun, Xinming,et al. Cinnabar is not converted into methylmercury by human intestinal bacteria[J]. JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY,2011,135(1):110-115.|
|APA||Zhou, Xinrui.,Wang, Liming.,Sun, Xinming.,Yang, Xiuwei.,Chen, Chunying.,...&Yang, Xiaoda.(2011).Cinnabar is not converted into methylmercury by human intestinal bacteria.JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY,135(1),110-115.|
|MLA||Zhou, Xinrui,et al."Cinnabar is not converted into methylmercury by human intestinal bacteria".JOURNAL OF ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY 135.1(2011):110-115.|