|摘要||目的 通过分析非规律产前检查的重度与轻度子痫前期孕妇的临床特征,探讨降低这一群体发生重度子痫前期风险的可行措施. 方法 对2007年1月至201 1年12月在北京大学第三医院产科住院治疗并终止妊娠的222例非规律产前检查的子痫前期患者的临床资料进行分析.分析子痫前期临床发病风险因素和产前检查情况.采用非参数检验、卡方检验、Fisher精确概率法及趋势卡方检验和多元Logistic回归分析进行统计学处理. 结果 222例子痫前期患者中,重度子痫前期207例(93.2％),轻度子痫前期15例(6.8％).重度子痫前期患者中,早发型95例(45.9％),晚发型112例(54.1％).轻度子痫前期患者中,早发型2例,晚发型13例.重度子痫前期患者中,早发型所占比例明显高于轻度子痫前期患者,差异有统计学意义(x2=6.027,P=0.015).除外未行产前检查的9例患者后,对其余213例经历不同级别医院产前检查的子痫前期患者进行分析发现,产前检查医院级别越低,重度子痫前期患者所占比例越高,在三、二和-级医院进行产前检查的重度子痫前期患者的比例分别为5/9、94.2％(131/139)和96.9％(63/65),差异有统计学意义(x2=8.600,P=0.003).重度子痫前期患者获得诊断前产前检查的间隔时间长于轻度子痫前期患者,妊娠20周后的产前检查次数也少于轻度子痫前期患者[M(Q),分别为8.0 (4.0)和4.8(4.4)周,Z=2.695,P=0.007;1(1)和3(3)次,Z=-4.195,P=0.000].重度子痫前期患者获得诊断孕周和入三级医院孕周均早于轻度子痫前期患者[分别为32.4(5.6)与35.4(4.3)周,Z=-3.075,P=0.002;33.1 (5.3)与35.4(3.9)周,Z=-2.608,P=0.009],并且获得诊断至转入三级医院间隔时间长于轻度子痫前期患者f0.1(0.7)和0.0(0.0)周,Z=2.904,P=0.004].多元Logistic回归分析表明,妊娠20周后产前检查次数少是重度子痫前期发病的独立影响因素(OR=0.115,95％CI:0.046～0.285,P=0.000). 结论 非规律产前检查者重度子痫前期的发生与产前检查医院级别低、妊娠20周后产前检查次数较少、产前检查间隔时间较长及转诊至三级医院时间有关.
Objective To investigate the risk factors for severe and mild preeclampsia (PE) in women with irregular prenatal care,and to identify practical measures to reduce the occurrence of severe PE.Methods A retrospective study of 222 PE patients with irregular prenatal care,who delivered in Peking University Third Hospital from January 2007 to December 2011,was performed.The risk factors for PE and the status of prenatal care were analyzed.The non-parametric test,Chi-square test,Fisher's exact test,trendy Chi-square test and Logistic regression analysis were used for statistical analysis.Results There were 207 (93.2％) cases of severe PE and 15 (6.8％) cases of mild PE.In 207 severe PE patients,there were 95 cases (45.9％) of early-onset PE (diagnosed before 32 gestational weeks) and 112 cases (54.1％) of late-onset PE.In the 15 mild PE patients,there were two early-onset cases and 13 late-onset cases.The percentage of early-onset cases in severe PE patients was higher than that in mild PE patients [45.9％ (95/207) vs 2/15,x2=6.027,P=0.015].After excluding 9 cases without any prenatal care,213 PE patients were analyzed,and it was found that the proportion of severe PE diagnosed in hospitals of grade 3,2 and 1 were significantly different [5/9,94.2％ (131/139) vs 96.9％ (63/65),x2=8.600,P=0.003].Compared with mild PE patients,the prenatal care interval for PE diagnosis in severe PE patients was longer [M(Q),8.0(4.0) vs 4.8(4.4) weeks,Z=2.695,P=0.007];the frequency of prenatal care after 20 gestational weeks was less [1(1) vs 3(3) times,Z=-4.195,P=0.000];the gestational week of PE diagnosis and referral to grade 3 hospitals were earlier [32.4(5.6) vs 35.4(4.3) weeks,Z=-3.075,P=0.002;33.1(5.3) vs 35.4(3.9) weeks,respectively,Z=-2.608,P=0.009];and the interval between PE diagnosis and referral was longer [0.1 (0.7) vs 0.0(0.0) weeks,respectively,Z=2.904,P=0.004].Multivariate logistic regression showed that the frequency of prenatal care after 20 gestational weeks was an independent risk factor for severe PE (OR=0.115,95％CI:0.046-0.285,P=0.000).Conclusion In women without regular prenatal care,the onset of severe PE is related to low-level prenatal hospital care,lack of prenatal care after 20 gestational weeks and longer prenatal care intervals as well as referral to grade 3 hospitals.|