Objective To find an artificial composite bone graft suitable for clinical use. Methods Calcium phosphate ceramic carriers(TCP＋ HA) were used, and in some of them holes were drilled. Bone marrow cells from New Zealand white rabbits were cultured to obtain stromal cells, which were then cultured with the carriers to make the artificial composite bone graft. It was then implanted into muscular pouch on the back of the rabbits. The carriers were taken out at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. Electronic and light microscopes were used for the observation of the growth of cells within the carriers, osteogenesis of artificial bone in the muscle pouch and influence of the drilled holes to the growth of the cells and osteogenesis. Results The cells grew well within the pouches as well as into the drilled holes. The artificial bone connected well with the surrounding muscular tissue and no envelope was seen. Histological study showed that tissue and blood vessels grew into the carriers at 2 weeks, osteogenesis was observed at 4 to 8 weeks and laminar bone formed at 12 weeks. No lymphocyte was found. The growth of cells, tissue and blood vessels were faster and more bone formed in the artificial bone with the drilled holes than the artificial boen without the drilled holes. Conclusion Calcium phosphate ceramic carriers showed good biological compatibility and osteoconduction. Marrow stromal cells had the capacity of osteogenesis in vivo. Drilling holes into the carrier can increase osteogenic activity as well as increase the quantity of homogenous osteogenesis.