|摘要||目的 探讨尘肺诊断病例的发病特点,为尘肺病防治提供参考依据.方法 对2004至2009年受理的353例尘肺诊断病例的发病情况进行分析,并着重对矽肺、煤工尘肺及陶工尘肺3种尘肺的发病年龄、发病工龄及发病潜伏期进行比较.结果 诊断的353例尘肺包括10种尘肺,其中矽肺(102例)、煤工尘肺(153例)及陶工尘肺(53例)分别占全部尘肺的28.90%、43.34%及15.01%.50年代至80年代开始接尘诊断为尘肺的病例占全部诊断病例的84.99%(300/353).不同年代Ⅰ期矽肺、煤工尘肺及陶工尘肺的发病年龄、发病工龄及发病潜伏期均呈逐渐缩短的趋势.与80年代前比较,80年代以后开始接尘的矽肺和煤工尘肺发病年龄、接尘工龄及发病潜伏期缩短,差异有统计学意义(P＜0.01);80年代后,因北京市的陶瓷业转产,再未见陶工尘肺发病.玉器加工工人矽肺的发病年龄小和发病潜伏期短.结论 矽肺、煤工尘肺发病情况仍不乐观,特别对生产条件较为落后的玉器加工乡镇企业应加强监管.
Objective To get the message about the developing feature of pneumoconiosis by analyzing the data from 353 cases of pneumoconiosis diagnosed in our hospital recent 6 years. Methods To analyze the onset age, onset service years and incubation period of 353 cases of pneumoconiosis, especially in silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis and potter's pneumoconiosis. Results 353 patients referred to 10 species of pneumoconiosis, the silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis and potter's pneumoconiosis were accounted for 28.90%, 43.34% and 15.01% of total pneumoconiosis respectively. Diagnosed patients who began to exposed to dust during 1950's to 1980's accounted for 84.99% of ali the diagnosed patients. The onset age, onset service years and incubation period of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis and potters' pneumoconiosis all showed a shorten trend compared each other every decade, especially after 1980' s, but excluded potter' s pneumoconiosis because of that the ceramics industry switched to other products in Beijing.There was a positive correlation relationship between average onset age and incubation period in three main species of pneumoconiosis mentioned above, but no significant difference could be seen in average promotion years. Additionally, comparing with other type of work, jade machining workers showed such a characteristic as younger onset and short incubation period. Conclusion The development situation of silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis is still no so optimistic, and the strict surveillance and administration especially to the township enterprises with poor production conditions should get further strengthen.|